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Skeps, baskets placed open-end-down, have been used to house bees for some 2000 years.Initially they were made from wicker plastered with mud and dung but from the Middle Ages they were made of straw.In northern and western Europe, skeps were made of coils of grass or straw.
Western honey bees show several nest-site preferences: the height above ground is usually between 1 metre (3.3 ft) and 5 metres (16 ft), entrance positions tend to face downward, Equatorial-facing entrances are favored, and nest sites over 300 metres (980 ft) from the parent colony are preferred. The bees often smooth the bark surrounding the nest entrance, and the cavity walls are coated with a thin layer of hardened plant resin (propolis).
The peanut-shaped queen cells are normally built at the lower edge of the comb.
The archaeologist Amihai Mazar cites 30 intact hives that were discovered in the ruins of the city of Rehov (2,000 residents in 900 BC, Israelites and Canaanites).
Nest is used to discuss colonies which house themselves in natural or artificial cavities or are hanging and exposed.
Hive is used to describe an artificial, man-made structure to house a honey bee nest.